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a woman in Spanish traditional dress holds a fan and looks coy against a backdrop of Sydney Harbour

Cheat Sheet: Carmen on Sydney Harbour

Everything you need to know about one of opera's greatest hits.

Who was the composer?

What happens in the story?

Will I know the music? ​

This production is ...

A little history

Conversation starters

Please, just sum it up for me!


Who was the composer?

Georges Bizet (birth name: Alexandre César Léopold Bizet) was born in 1838 to a wigmaker-turned-singing-teacher father and mother who was an accomplished pianist.

He was a gifted pianist and composer, but generally unlucky in his lifetime. He was a prolific composer, forever entering competitions (but rarely winning prizes) and premiering new works (but rarely winning praise). He found he could make more money arranging other people’s music than composing his own.

In 1875, he died of heart disease at just 36. His tragic death brought the success he'd sought in his lifetime. Just three months after Carmen premiered to a disparaging press, a special performance of his last opera in honour of his death won public hearts. Carmen has been a smash-hit ever since.

He also wrote The Pearlfishers, which contains one of the most beautiful (and famous) duets in opera.

Georges Bizet

Georges Bizet, pictured in 1875. Copyright: public domain.


What happens in the story?

Small-town boy Don José is serving with the army far from home. His fellow soldiers — indeed the whole town — are captivated by the strange allure of a gypsy woman, Carmen. He thinks only of home, his mother, and the pretty Micaëla, a young girl who comes to deliver a letter from home.

Carmen has no patience for the men that fawn at her feet, but she is intrigued by the shy Don José.

Arrested for beginning a fight, Carmen seduces Don José to win her freedom, and convinces him to desert the army to join her in the gypsy life of liberty.

But her wandering eye has already found another lover: the dashing bullfighter, Escamillo.

Don José’s jealousy is fierce, Escamillo’s passion is determined, Carmen’s fate is set in the cards…



Who are the main players?

Carmen: a gypsy woman

Don José: a soldier

Escamillo: a bullfighter

Micaëla: Don José’s fiancee



What’s the big hit?

Take your pick!

Carmen’s sultry 'Habanera' pops up in films, television shows and advertisements all the time. It’s incredibly catchy.

Escamillo’s 'Toreador' is so impressive it made it to Bugs Bunny, and Don José’s heartstring-pulling 'Flower Song' is a romantic classic.


Something to listen out for?

You don’t have to listen hard to notice the way Bizet incorporates exotic Spanish music into the score — the Seguidilla that Carmen dances in the hillside, accompanied by castanets, and the Habanera, based on an original Spanish folk song.

SPOILER ALERT! A motif symbolising fate follows Carmen throughout the opera, sounding again and again as her fate takes shape: when she throws her flower to Don José, as she reads her cards in the mountains and sees her death, as she rejects Don José and tells him to leave with Micaëla, and finally, playing loudly as Don José stabs her at the bullfight.


This production is...

... an action-packed, dance-filled, larger-than-life take on Bizet’s vivid drama created especially for the spectacular harbour stage by veteran director Gale Edwards. She says Carmen is the perfect opera. "There's so much to entice and to excite."

Throw in a dream design team of Julie Lynch (costumes) and Brian Thomson (set), let loose in Franco-era Spain and you have “the perfect potion – the glitzy visuals and hyperactive energy of a Broadway musical mixed with world-class opera” (Time Out, 2013).

Edwards skilful direction gives us all the sex, fighting and unbridled tensions of Bizet’s opera in technicolour, but she also finds plenty of space for intimacy in the solo arias and duets.


A little history

Carmen got off to a rough start. The unlucky composer finally had a commission in hand: a full-length opera for the Opéra-Comique. Bizet began composing a score for Mérimée‘s short story Carmen, working with the renowned librettist duo Meilhac and Halévy. But the family-friendly opera house baulked at the risqué story, and stopped Bizet in his tracks. Two years later, the opera house changed hands and Carmen started production — but even then, things didn’t go smoothly.

The Orchestra and the Chorus complained the score was unplayable and unsingable in parts. They had trouble finding a leading lady.

Nevertheless, Carmen premiered on March 3, 1875, which a who's who of composers in the audience. The reception began warmly but was "glacial" by the final act, according to the librettist.

It played to half-empty houses that year. But after Bizet's sudden death, Carmen was revived in Vienna, then Brussels, then London, and hailed a success.

Wagner, Tchaikovsky and Brahms all praised the work, with Wagner saying “Here, thank God, at last for a change is somebody with ideas in his head.”

Carmen is now credited as a forerunner of the "verismo" movement, where opera composers portrayed normal (read - middle or lower class) people in a realistic style. His melodies evoked the colour and culture of Andalusian Spain.


Conversation starters

  • Carmen is an unusual female protagonist in the world of opera: a picture of strength and vitality, smoking and fighting on stage, dancing and seducing with no thought for her honour or reputation.
  • When the opera first premièred, the Chorus were indignant that they were expected to fight and smoke on stage, rather than just stand in a line and sing!
  • Carmen has inspired countless adaptations, including a 2001 movie called Carmen: the Hip Hopera, starring Beyoncé Knowles.

Facts and figures

From the 1,750 red lightbulbs blazing on those spectacular 9-metre letters to the 15-day timeline to build the venue, the numbers of Handa Opera on Sydney Harbour are mind-boggling. 

  • 78 people perform in the cast, including 14 principals, 16 dancers, 40 Chorus members, 8 actors
  • 44 musicians play in the Opera Australia Orchestra in the underworld beneath the stage
  • The harbour stage is two-and-a-half times larger than any Australian indoor stage, supporting up to 150 tonne. Approximately 150 people help build the stage.
  • The brilliant stage scenery took 32 people nearly 6,000 hours to build.
  • 223 speakers carry the music into the evening air, while 230 moving lights and 7,200 LED lights light up the stage
  • There are 284 costumes, 66 wigs and 122 pairs of shoes on stage
  • It took our wardrobe department more than 10,000 hours to create the costumes
  • Two surf life-savers patrol during rehearsals and performances to ensure the safety of the cast, crew and audience.
  • 150 volunteers from around NSW help make this event possible

Carmen on Sydney Harbour


New to Opera? Read our ultimate guide


Carmen in a nutshell

The composer: Georges Bizet. French. 19th Century. Also famous for The Pearlfishers.

The music: French romantic with a few 'exotic' Spanish flourishes thrown in to set the scene.

The big hit: 

The setting: Originally set in Seville, Spain about 1820, this larger-than-life harbourside production is set in Franco-era Spain and draws inspiration from Fellini's La Dolce Vita.

The tragedy: Carmen wasn't popular in Bizet's lifetime became a runaway hit after his death.

A quirky fact to impress your date: Carmen has inspired countless adaptations – including a 2001 movie called Carmen: the Hip Hopera, starring Beyoncé Knowles!


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